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Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows - Corrected Proof
I. Bazzoli, M. De Marchi, A. Cecchinato, D.P. Berry, G. Bittante
The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds.
Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets - Corrected Proof
B. Baurhoo, A. Mustafa
Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance.
Assessment of accuracy of genomic prediction for French Lacaune dairy sheep - Corrected Proof
G. Baloche, A. Legarra, G. Sallé, H. Larroque, J.-M. Astruc, C. Robert-Granié, F. Barillet
Genomic selection in Lacaune dairy sheep was investigated based on genotypes from the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Historical artificial insemination progeny-tested rams formed a population of 2,892 genotyped rams. Additional ungenotyped rams and females were included by single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). Three prediction strategies were tried: pseudo-BLUP (using all rams and daughter yield deviations), pseudo-ssGBLUP (using all rams and daughter yield deviations), and regular ssGBLUP (using all phenotypes and pedigree in an animal model). The population linkage disequilibrium was determined, with an average squared correlation coefficient of 0.11 for markers closer than 0.1 cM (lower than in dairy cattle). The estimated effective population is 370 individuals. Gain in accuracy of genomic selection over parent averages ranged from 0.10 to 0.20. Highest accuracies and lowest bias were found using regular ssGBLUP. Transition to a genomic breeding scheme is possible but costs need to be carefully evaluated.
Fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for bovine milk fat composition on Bos taurus autosome 19 - Corrected Proof
Aniek C. Bouwman, Marleen H.P.W. Visker, Johan A.M. van Arendonk, Henk Bovenhuis
A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for milk fat content and fatty acids in both milk and adipose tissue has been detected on Bos taurus autosome 19 (BTA19) in several cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to refine the location of the QTL on BTA19 for bovine milk fat composition using a denser set of markers. Opportunities for fine mapping were provided by imputation from 50,000 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) toward a high-density SNP panel with up to 777,000 SNP. The QTL region was narrowed down to a linkage disequilibrium block formed by 22 SNP covering 85,007 bp, from 51,303,322 to 51,388,329 bp on BTA19. This linkage disequilibrium block contained 2 genes: coiled-coil domain containing 57 (CCDC57) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). The gene CCDC57 is minimally characterized and has not been associated with bovine milk fat previously, but is expressed in the mammary gland. The gene FASN has been associated with bovine milk fat and fat in adipose tissue before. This gene is a likely candidate for the QTL on BTA19 because of its involvement in de novo fat synthesis. Future studies using sequence data of both CCDC57 and FASN, and eventually functional studies, will have to be pursued to assign the causal variant(s).
Technical note: Selecting the best references in gene expression experiments in liver of cows receiving glucogenic supplements during the transition period - Corrected Proof
M. Ostrowska, B. Żelazowska, K. Słoniewski, Z.M. Kowalski, L. Zwierzchowski
Measuring gene expression is a commonly used method to monitor the reaction of cells and tissues to changing nutritional or physiological conditions. Selection of appropriate reference genes is a crucial point in gene expression experiments using real-time PCR techniques. Expression of the “ideal” reference gene should not be affected by the experimental treatments or physiological state of the tissue, organ, or the whole organism. Many programs are available from which to choose the most stable reference gene. In this study, 4 algorithms—ΔCt, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and geNorm—were used to assess the expression stability of 5 candidate reference genes: β-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), and TATA-box-binding protein (TBP), for use in an experiment aimed at measuring gene expression in the liver of cows fed glucogenic supplements in the transition from pregnancy to lactation. The results demonstrated that RPS9 and RPL32 were the most stably expressed in the liver under the conditions of the present experiment; the least stably expressed was ACTB.
Oral administration of cobalt acetate alters milk fatty acid composition, consistent with an inhibition of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase in lactating ewes - Corrected Proof
P. Frutos, P.G. Toral, E. Ramos-Morales, K.J. Shingfield, A. Belenguer, G. Hervás
Previous investigations have shown that cobalt (Co) modifies milk fat composition in cattle, consistent with an inhibition of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity, but it remains unclear whether other ruminant species are also affected. The present study examined the effects of oral administration of Co acetate on intake, rumen function, and milk production and fatty acid (FA) composition in sheep. Twenty lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 1 of 4 groups and used in a continuous randomized block design that involved a 15-d adaptation, a 6-d treatment, and a 10-d posttreatment period. During the treatment period, animals received an oral drench supplying 0 (control), 3 (Co3), 6 (Co6), and 9 (Co9) mg of Co/kg of BW per day, administered in 3 equal doses at 8-h intervals. Cobalt acetate had no influence on intake or milk fat and protein concentrations, whereas treatments Co6 and Co9 tended to lower milk yield. Results on rumen parameters showed no effects on rumen fermentation, FA composition, or bacterial community structure. Administration of Co acetate decreased milk concentrations of FA containing a cis-9 double bond and SCD product:substrate ratios, consistent with an inhibition of SCD activity in the ovine mammary gland. Temporal changes in milk fat composition indicated that the effects of treatments were evident within 3 d of dosing, with further changes being apparent after 6 d and reverting to pretreatment values by d 6 after administration. Effect on milk FA composition did not differ substantially in response to incremental doses of Co acetate. On average, Co decreased milk cis-9 10:1/10:0, cis-9 12:1/12:0, cis-9 14:1/14:0, cis-9 16:1/16:0, cis-9 17:1/17:0, cis-9 18:1/18:0, and cis-9,trans-11 18:2/trans-11 18:1 concentration ratios by 30, 32, 38, 33, 21, 24, and 25%, respectively. Changes in milk fat cis-9 10:1, cis-9 12:1, and cis-9 14:1 concentrations to Co treatment indicated that 51% of cis-9 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 18:2 secreted in milk originated from Δ9-desaturation. In conclusion, results demonstrated the potential of oral Co administration for the estimation of endogenous synthesis of FA containing a cis-9 double bond in the mammary gland of lactating ruminants. Indirect comparisons suggest that the effects of Co differ between sheep and cattle.
Short communication: Genetic parameters of individual fatty acids in milk of Canadian Holsteins - Corrected Proof
G. Bilal, R.I. Cue, A.F. Mustafa, J.F. Hayes
The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities of milk fatty acids (FA) and genetic and phenotypic correlations among milk FA and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins. One morning milk sample was collected from each of 3,185 dairy cows between February and June 2010 from 52 commercial herds enrolled in Valacta (Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada). Individual FA percentages (g/100 g of total FA) were determined for each sample by gas chromatography. After editing the data, 2,573 cows from 46 herds remained. Genetic parameters were estimated using multitrait animal models fitted under REML. The model included fixed effects of age at calving and stage of lactation each nested within parity and random effects of herd-year-season of calving, animal, and residual. The pedigree of animals with data was traced back 5 generations on both the male and female sides to account for relationships among animals. The estimates of heritability for individual FA ranged from 0.01 to 0.39, with standard errors ranging from 0.01 to 0.06. Generally, monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA) showed higher heritability estimates than polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Overall, SFA were negatively genetically correlated with MUFA and PUFA, whereas genetic correlations between MUFA and PUFA were positive. The SFA showed positive associations with fat yield and fat percentage, whereas unsaturated FA were negatively associated with fat yield and fat percentage. Bovine milk FA composition could be improved through genetic selection, and selection for MUFA or against SFA could alter the bovine milk fat profile in a desirable direction.
Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare - Corrected Proof
M. de Vries, E.A.M. Bokkers, G. van Schaik, B. Engel, T. Dijkstra, I.J.M. de Boer
Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a prescreening tool for detecting herds with a welfare problem, but this should be followed by a verification of the level of welfare in an on-farm assessment to identify false-positive herds. Consequently, the number of farm visits needed for routine welfare assessments can be reduced. The RHD also hold value for continuous monitoring of dairy cattle welfare. Prediction models developed in this study, however, should first be validated in additional field studies.
Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms - Corrected Proof
M.A.P.M. van Asseldonk, A.G.J. Velthuis
Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standards. To select farms for an audit that present higher risks, a statistical analysis was conducted to test the relationship between the outcome of farm audits and bulk milk laboratory results before the audit. The analysis comprised 28,358 farm audits and all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. The overall outcome of each farm audit was classified as approved or rejected. Laboratory results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acids (FFA), and cleanliness of the milk (CLN). The bulk milk laboratory results were significantly related to audit outcomes. Rejected audits are likely to occur on dairy farms with higher mean levels of SCC, TBC, ADR, and BAB. Moreover, in a multivariable model, maxima for TBC, SCC, and FPD as well as standard deviations for TBC and FPD are risk factors for negative audit outcomes. The efficiency curve of a risk-based selection approach, on the basis of the derived regression results, dominated the current random selection approach. To capture 25, 50, or 75% of the population with poor process standards (i.e., audit outcome of rejected), respectively, only 8, 20, or 47% of the population had to be sampled based on a risk-based selection approach. Milk quality information can thus be used to preselect high-risk farms to be audited more frequently.
Assessing the yield, microstructure, and texture properties of miniature Chihuahua-type cheese manufactured with a phospholipase A1 and exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria - Corrected Proof
N. Trancoso-Reyes, N. Gutiérrez-Méndez, D.R. Sepulveda, L.R. Hernández-Ochoa
Chihuahua cheese or Mennonite cheese is one of the most popular and consumed cheeses in Mexico and by the Hispanic community in the United States. According to local producers the yield of Chihuahua cheese ranges from 9 to 9.5 kg of cheese from 100 kg of milk. Cheese yield is a crucial determinant of profitability in cheese-manufacturing plants; therefore, different methods have been developed to increase it. In this work, a miniature Chihuahua-type cheese model was used to assess the effect of a phospholipase A1 (PL-A1) and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (separately and in combination) on the yield, microstructure, and texture of cheese. Four different cheeses were manufactured: cheese made with PL-A1, cheese made with EPS-producing bacteria, cheese with both PL-A1 and EPS-producing bacteria, and a cheese control without PL-A1 or EPS-producing bacteria. The compositional analysis of cheese was carried out using methods of AOAC International (Washington, DC). The actual yield and moisture-adjusted yield were calculated for all cheese treatments. Texture profile analyses of cheeses were performed using a texture analyzer. Micrographs were obtained by electron scanning microscopy. Fifty panelists carried out sensorial analysis using ranking tests. Incorporation of EPS-producing bacteria in the manufacture of cheese increased the moisture content and water activity. In contrast, the addition of PL-A1 did not increase fat retention or cheese yield. The use of EPS alone improved the cheese yield by increasing water and fat retention, but also caused a negative effect on the texture and flavor of Chihuahua cheese. The use of EPS-producing bacteria in combination with PL-A1 improved the cheese yield and increased the moisture and fat content. The cheeses with the best flavor and texture were those manufactured with PL-A1 and the cheeses manufactured with the combination of PL-A1 and EPS-producing culture.
Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms - Corrected Proof
Saleh Shahinfar, David Page, Jerry Guenther, Victor Cabrera, Paul Fricke, Kent Weigel
When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome.
Optimizing production of in vivo-matured oocytes from superstimulated Holstein cows for in vitro production of embryos using X-sorted sperm - Corrected Proof
S. Matoba, H. Yoshioka, H. Matsuda, S. Sugimura, Y. Aikawa, M. Ohtake, Y. Hashiyada, T. Seta, K. Nakagawa, P. Lonergan, K. Imai
The present study aimed to establish an efficient system for the production of female embryos from dairy cows by in vitro fertilization (IVF) using X-sorted sperm and in vivo-matured oocytes collected by ovum pick up (OPU). Nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 36) were administered a controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing (controlled internal drug release) device (d 0), underwent dominant follicle ablation (DFA) or ovulation by administration of 100 μg of GnRH on d 5, and were superstimulated with FSH and PGF2α, following standard procedures. Controlled internal drug release devices were removed on the evening of d 8 or on the morning of d 9, depending on the experiment. For LH surge induction, 200 μg of GnRH was administered on the morning of d 10 (0 h). In experiment 1, the peak (48.1%) of ovulating follicles was detected at 29 to 32 h after GnRH injection (0 h), and the range in the timing of the initiation of ovulation was less by timing from GnRH administration (30.0 ± 2.8 h) rather than by timing the onset of estrus (32.7 ± 4.7 h). Only 0.9% of total ovulated follicles were recorded before 26 h after GnRH injection. Therefore, OPU was carried out at 26 h and IVF occurred at 30 h after GnRH in experiments 2 and 3. In experiment 2, 83.3 ± 10.8% of oocytes with expanded cumulus cells had extruded the first polar body at 30 h after GnRH injection. The aim of experiment 3 was to compare the effect of either DFA or GnRH-induced LH surge before superstimulation on the efficiency of embryo production by IVF following superstimulation. Progesterone concentrations from d 10 to 12 in the DFA group were lower than those in the GnRH group. A greater proportion of recovered oocytes with expanded cumulus cells from ≥8-mm follicles was observed in the DFA group than in the GnRH group (95.9 and 77.4%, respectively). Blastocyst rates in the DFA and GnRH groups (58.0 and 52.8%, respectively) did not differ from those of oocytes collected from nonstimulated OPU and matured in vitro (49.9%). However, the proportion of high-quality blastocysts was higher in the DFA group compared with the GnRH group (54.9 vs. 21.5%). Our results demonstrate that high rates of good-quality blastocysts can be produced by IVF with X-sorted frozen sperm using in vivo-matured oocytes collected by OPU from cows after DFA and superstimulation combined with ovulation induction.
Improved performance and heightened neutrophil responses during the neonatal and weaning periods among outdoor group-housed Holstein calves - Corrected Proof
C.J. Cobb, B.S. Obeidat, M.D. Sellers, A.R. Pepper-Yowell, D.L. Hanson, M.A. Ballou
The objective was to determine if outdoor group housing of Holstein calves influences metabolic status, leukocyte responses, and behavior compared with individually housed calves. Forty-nine Holstein heifer calves (2 ± 1 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: individually housed (G1; n = 22) or group housed [3 calves per pen (G3); n = 27]. The space allowances per calf were 4.8 and 7.0 m2 for G1 and G3, respectively. All calves were offered an identical plane of milk replacer nutrition (747 and 1,010 g of DM/d of a 28% CP:20% fat milk replacer from wk 1 to 2 and wk 3 to 6, respectively). Weaning was initiated during wk 7 by removing the p.m. feeding and calves were completely weaned when they consumed 900 g of calf starter/d (as fed) for 2 consecutive days after d 54. At d 90, calves were commingled into random outdoor groups of 5 calves per pen. Peripheral blood was collected during the neonatal (d 3, 10, and 21), weaning (d 46, 48, and 54), and commingling periods (d 90, 93, and 98) and was analyzed for neutrophil oxidative burst (OB) capacity when cocultured with Escherichia coli, neutrophil surface L-selectin protein expression, and whole-blood secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α when cocultured with lipopolysaccharide. Starter intake was greater for G3 during the postweaning period (wk 8 to 12). Average daily gain was greater for G3 than G1 from d 54 to 68 and tended to be greater after commingling from d 113 to 133. During the neonatal period, G3 calves had more activated neutrophils, as evidenced by increased neutrophil L-selectin protein expression and a tendency for increased percentage of neutrophils producing an OB than G1 calves. During weaning, G3 calves continued to have more activated neutrophils with increased L-selectin expression on d 46 and 48 and a greater OB intensity throughout the period. No differences were observed among leukocyte responses between treatments at d 93 and 98. Outdoor group-housed Holstein calves had improved performance and heightened neutrophil responses compared with individually housed calves.
Identification of a microscopically selected microorganism in milk samples - Corrected Proof
Nathalie Bracke, Mario Van Poucke, Bram Baert, Evelien Wynendaele, Lobke De Bels, Wim Van Den Broeck, Luc Peelman, Christian Burvenich, Bart De Spiegeleer
Identification of unwanted microbial contaminants microscopically observed in food products is challenging due to their low abundance in a complex matrix, quite often containing other microorganisms. Therefore, a selective identification method was developed using laser capture microdissection in combination with direct-captured cell PCR. This procedure was validated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus and further used to identify microbial contaminants present in some industrial milk samples. The microscopically observed contaminants were identified as mainly Methylobacterium species.
Short communication: Effects of analgesic use postcalving on cow welfare and production - Corrected Proof
G. Stilwell, H. Schubert, D.M. Broom
The aim of this study was to assess the welfare and production of cows given an analgesic drug (carprofen, 1.4 mg/kg i.v.) within 6 h after calving. The study was performed in a dairy farm with approximately 1,000 milking cows. Behavior, clinical indices, and production data (milk yield and fertility) of cows treated with carprofen (n = 19) or a placebo (n = 20) were compared. Additionally, differences related to parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the time of placental expulsion or incidence of clinical disease over the 3 d postpartum, but more animals from the analgesia group were observed eating during the first hours after calving. For unassisted calvings, the rectal temperature 24 h postpartum was lower in the cows given analgesic. Total lactation yields at 305 d in milk were higher in the primiparous cows treated with carprofen. Fewer cows were pregnant at 220 d postpartum in the treated group as the use of carprofen increased the time from calving to conception. This study suggests that pain management after parturition leads to earlier feed intake after calving and that this may lead to higher milk yield in first-lactation animals.
Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows - Corrected Proof
L.G.D. Mendonça, C.C. Abade, E.M. da Silva, N.B. Litherland, L.B. Hansen, W.P. Hansen, R.C. Chebel
Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites and haptoglobin peripartum, uterine health and involution, and follicle growth and resumption of cyclicity of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred cows. Cows (52 HO and 52 crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45 d before expected calving date. Cows had body weight and body condition score recorded on d −45, −14, 0, 1, 28, and 56 relative to calving. Dry matter intake was calculated for a subgroup of cows (25 HO and 38 crossbred) from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Blood was sampled weekly from d −14 to 56 relative to calving for determination of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; from d −7 to 21 relative to calving for determination of haptoglobin concentration; and from d 14 to 56 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Cows were examined at calving and on d 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum for diagnosis of postparturient diseases, on d 24 postpartum for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge, and on d 42 postpartum for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Uteri and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography every 3 d from d 14 to 41 postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured monthly and yield of milk, fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk were recorded for the first 90 d postpartum. Body weight was not different between Holstein and crossbred cows, but HO cows had reduced body condition score compared with crossbred cows. Even though DMI from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving tended to be greater for HO cows (16.8 ± 0.7 vs. 15.3 ± 0.5 kg/d), HO cows tended to have more pronounced decline in dry matter intake, expressed in percentage of body weight from d −15 to 0 relative to calving. Energy-corrected milk and nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not different between breeds. No differences were observed in incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, and subclinical endometritis, but HO cows tended to be more likely to have pyrexia from d 0 to 15 postpartum (50.0 vs. 31.4%) and to have greater incidence of purulent vaginal discharge (44.2 vs. 26.5%) than crossbred cows. Holstein cows were more likely to have at least 1 uterine disorder postpartum than crossbred cows (63.5 vs. 36.7%). No differences between breeds were observed in uterine involution. Holstein cows had larger subordinate follicles (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 8.9 ± 0.5) and a greater number of class III follicles (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1) than crossbred cows. Furthermore, the first corpus luteum postpartum of HO cows was diagnosed at a slower rate compared with crossbred cows. Crossbred cows had improved uterine health compared with HO cows and this may have been a consequence of heterosis and (or) breed complementarity and less pronounced decrease in DMI during the last days of gestation.
Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass- and chicory-based diets - Corrected Proof
S.K. Muir, G.N. Ward, J.L. Jacobs
Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring.
Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters - Corrected Proof
Monica Gatti, Benedetta Bottari, Camilla Lazzi, Erasmo Neviani, Germano Mucchetti
The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures.
Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms - Corrected Proof
H. Pothmann, K. Nechanitzky, F. Sturmlechner, M. Drillich
The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n = 1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy should take the results into consideration in improving or adapting their advisory services.
Short communication: Genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter isolates recovered from bulk tank milk - Corrected Proof
M.D. Tamang, M. Gurung, H.M. Nam, S.R. Kim, G.C. Jang, S.C. Jung, S.K. Lim
A total of 176 Acinetobacter isolates, including 57 Acinetobacter baumannii originally obtained from 2,287 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples in Korea was investigated for the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance using molecular methods. In addition, the occurrence and cassette content of integrons were examined and the genetic diversity of A. baumannii strains identified was evaluated. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes were detected in 15 (88.2%) of the 17 aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter isolates tested. The most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene identified was adenylyltransferase gene aadB (n = 9), followed by phosphotransferase genes aphA6 (n = 7) and aphA1 (n = 5). Of the 31 isolates resistant to tetracycline, tet(39) was detected in 20 of them. The genetic basis of resistance to sulfonamide was identified in 15 (53.6%) of 28 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates and 9 (32.1%) of them carried both sul1 and sul2 genes. A blaADC-7-like gene was detected in 1 β-lactam-resistant A. baumannii. Furthermore, class 1 integron was identified in 11 Acinetobacter isolates. Two gene cassettes dfrA15, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA2, conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, were identified in 8 Acinetobacter isolates. None of the isolates was positive for class 2 or class 3 integrons. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that most of the A. baumannii strains from BTM samples were genetically diverse, indicating that the occurrence of A. baumannii strains in BTM was not the result of dissemination of a single clone. Elucidation of resistance mechanisms associated with the resistance phenotype and a better understanding of resistance genes may help in the development of strategies to control infections, such as mastitis, and to prevent further dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from milk.
Use of dietary feather meal to induce histidine deficiency or imbalance in dairy cows and effects on milk composition - Corrected Proof
P. Stahel, N.G. Purdie, J.P. Cant
Removing His from a postruminal AA infusion decreases milk protein and increases milk fat content. Feather meal is an inexpensive protein source, high in rumen undegradable protein but low in His. The objective of our study was to investigate dietary feather meal as a method for creating a His deficiency or imbalance to alter milk composition. Four dietary treatments were fed for 4 wk each to 8 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. A standard-protein control diet (SP-C) was formulated to provide 3,100 g/d of metabolizable protein (MP). Feather meal was added to the control diet either to replace the MP isonitrogenously (SP-FM) or to increase the MP supply to 3,484 g/d (HP-FM). As an isonitrogenous control for HP-FM, a high-protein diet (HP-C) was formulated with His-adequate protein sources to provide the same MP content as HP-FM. Dry matter intake tended to decrease when feather meal was fed. Predicted flows of digestible His, Met, and Lys, and plasma concentrations of these AA were reduced on both feather meal diets. Predicted flows of total digestible essential AA were not different between HP-FM and SP-C. We concluded that the DMI depression on HP-FM prevented an imbalance of excess AA over His, and created a deficiency of His, Met, and Lys compared with SP-C. Milk production decreased on the 2 feather meal treatments, partly explained by a tendency for DMI to decrease. Milk yield was lowest on SP-FM at 30.3 kg/d and highest on HP-C at 37.9 kg/d. Milk fat yield was not affected by diet but protein and lactose yields were both lower with feather meal. Protein yields were 860 and 998 g/d, whereas lactose yields were 1,384 and 1,561 g/d for SP-FM and HP-FM, respectively. This resulted in a higher fat content and lower protein percentage on FM diets. The ratio of solids-not-fat:fat in milk was lowest on SP-FM at 2.11 compared with 2.56 on SP-C. Adding feather meal to the diet by replacing MP isonitrogenously was more effective at lowering the solids-not-fat:fat ratio than increasing the MP content with an imbalanced protein source.
Evaluation of predictions of volatile fatty acid production rates by the Molly cow model - Corrected Proof
S. Ghimire, P. Gregorini, M.D. Hanigan
Predicting ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) production is important, as VFA are an energy source to the animal, affect nutrient partitioning, and dictate methane production. The VFA production submodel in the Molly cow model was evaluated using data from 8 publications that reported VFA production rates for cattle. Evaluations were conducted with ruminal water balance predictions enabled and the ruminal VFA stoichiometry coefficients set to “mixed” for all diets, or “mixed” when forage represented between 20 and 80% of the diet, “concentrate” when <20% forage, or “forage” when >80% forage. Prediction errors were relatively insensitive to changes in VFA coefficients by diet type. Root mean square prediction errors (RMSPE) were 63, 63, and 49% for acetate, propionate, and butyrate production rates, respectively. A large proportion of the error was slope bias for acetate and butyrate, and a modest proportion for propionate. Because interconversions between acetate and propionate represent approximately 15% of the variation in net production rates, lack of such consideration in the model may contribute to the substantial model prediction errors. The potential of using thermodynamic equations to predict interconversions was assessed using observed ruminal pH and VFA concentrations from 2 studies and assuming constant hydrogen pressure and concentrations of CO2, H2O, adenosine diphosphate, ATP, and inorganic P. Rate constants for conversion of acetate to propionate and propionate to acetate were derived independently from the control treatments and used to predict the fluxes for the other treatment. The observed changes in VFA concentrations and pH explained the observed changes in conversion of acetate to propionate, but overpredicted the change in the propionate to acetate flux in one study. When applied to the other study, the equations predicted the increase in propionate to acetate flux, but failed to predict the observed reduction in acetate to propionate flux. The inability to predict responses accurately may be due to a lack of data for controlling factors other than pH and VFA concentrations.
Prediction of fatty acid profiles in cow, ewe, and goat milk by mid-infrared spectrometry - Corrected Proof
M. Ferrand-Calmels, I. Palhière, M. Brochard, O. Leray, J.M. Astruc, M.R. Aurel, S. Barbey, F. Bouvier, P. Brunschwig, H. Caillat, M. Douguet, F. Faucon-Lahalle, M. Gelé, G. Thomas, J.M. Trommenschlager, H. Larroque
Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry was used to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition in cow, ewe, and goat milk. The objectives were to compare different statistical approaches with wavelength selection to predict the milk FA composition from MIR spectra, and to develop equations for FA in cow, goat, and ewe milk. In total, a set of 349 cow milk samples, 200 ewe milk samples, and 332 goat milk samples were both analyzed by MIR and by gas chromatography, the reference method. A broad FA variability was ensured by using milk from different breeds and feeding systems. The methods studied were partial least squares regression (PLS), first-derivative pretreatment + PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS, wavelets + PLS, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method (LASSO), and elastic net. The best results were obtained with PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS and first derivative + PLS. The residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination in external validation were used to characterize the equations and to retain the best for each FA in each species. In all cases, the predictions were of better quality for FA found at medium to high concentrations (i.e., for saturated FA and some monounsaturated FA with a coefficient of determination in external validation >0.90). The conversion of the FA expressed in grams per 100 mL of milk to grams per 100 g of FA was possible with a small loss of accuracy for some FA.
Technical note: A comparison of 2 methods of assessing lameness prevalence in tiestall herds - Corrected Proof
Jenny Gibbons, Derek B. Haley, Janet Higginson Cutler, Clemence Nash, Jessica Zaffino Heyerhoff, Doris Pellerin, Steve Adam, Alain Fournier, Anne Marie de Passillé, Jeffrey Rushen, Elsa Vasseur
We compared 2 methods for identifying lame cows and estimating the prevalence of lameness in tiestalls. Cows (n = 320) in 9 tiestall herds were scored as lame both by the presence of limping while walking and by stall lameness scores (SLS). The SLS was based on the number of the following behaviors that the cow showed while standing in the tiestall: weight shifting, standing on the edge of the stall, uneven weight bearing while standing, and uneven weight bearing while moving from side to side. Two observers watched video-recordings of the cows. Intraobserver agreements for the 4 SLS behaviors ranged from 92 to 100%, and interobserver agreement ranged from 81 to 100%. The overall prevalence of lameness based on an SLS of ≥2 was similar to that of limping (39 vs. 40%). The sensitivity of the classification based on the SLS was 0.63 and the specificity was 0.77 in identifying cows with a limp; accuracy varied across farms from 62.2 to 80.4%, with a mean of 71.7%. A cow with an SLS of ≥2 had 4.88 times the odds of limping than a cow with an SLS of <2. The prevalence of lameness on farms based on SLS was highly correlated with the prevalence of limping (Pearson correlation = 0.88; n = 9), and prevalence estimates from the 2 methods diverged most when the mean herd prevalence was lower. The SLS method provides an estimate of the prevalence of lameness in tiestall herds comparable with traditional gait scoring, but does not require that the cows be untied. The SLS method could be used to improve lameness detection on tiestall farms and obtain estimates of lameness prevalence without the need to walk the cows.
Serum iron as an indicator of acute inflammation in cattle - Corrected Proof
Ersoy Baydar, Murat Dabak
The aim of this study was to assess the value of serum iron concentration in the diagnosis of acute inflammation in cattle. The diagnostic value of this approach was compared with that of various other hematological tests, including commonly used techniques that measure the levels of various other acute-phase proteins. The study population comprised 10 cows with acute reticuloperitonitis traumática (RPT group) and 10 cows with acute mastitis (mastitis group) admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Firat University (Elaziğ, Turkey). Ten cows from local barns, kept and fed under same conditions as the diseased animals, were used as controls. After the clinical examination, blood samples were collected for biochemical, hematological, and acute-phase protein (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, α-1 acid glycoprotein, and fibrinogen) analyses. The mean levels of serum iron in the RPT, mastitis, and control groups were 6.00, 7.82, and 26.78 μmol/L, respectively. Serum iron level was significantly reduced in the RPT and mastitis groups. The results of this study indicate that serum iron analysis, preferably in combination with other markers of inflammation, may be a useful diagnostic tool for acute inflammation in cattle. Because serum iron measurement is individually available and easily applicable, it may be used for clinical cases as well as the determination of herd health.
Genetic evaluation of in-line recorded milkability from milking parlors and automatic milking systems - Corrected Proof
C. Carlström, E. Strandberg, K. Johansson, G. Pettersson, H. Stålhammar, J. Philipsson
The overall objective of this study was to assess the use of in-line recorded milkability information from dairy herds with conventional milking parlors (CMP) and from herds with automatic milking systems (AMS) for genetic evaluation. Some genetic parameters were previously studied on AMS data for 2,053 Swedish Holstein (SH) and 1,749 Swedish Red (SR) cows in 19 herds. These data were combined in the present paper with milkability information from 74 herds with CMP, including 11,123 SH cows and 7,554 SR cows. Genetic parameters were estimated for the CMP data and genetic correlations were estimated between milkability traits measured in the 2 systems. Average flow rate and milking time were derived and used as similar milkability traits for both systems, whereas box time was used only for AMS herds. Estimated heritabilities were in the range from 0.24 to 0.49. Even though the traits were differently defined in the 2 milking systems, the corresponding traits recorded in AMS and CMP were genetically closely related (0.93–1.00). Similarly, close genetic relationships were shown between milkability traits in different lactations in both breeds (0.93–0.99). Thus, it should be possible to treat milkability traits in different lactations and from different milking systems as the same traits in genetic evaluations. The various milkability traits were also highly genetically correlated, indicating that the inclusion of just one trait in the genetic selection program would efficiently select for milkability without the need to consider all measures. Comparisons of repeatability and random regression models, combining all information from the 2 systems for genetic evaluation, were done to find the most suitable model for genetic evaluation purposes. Even though the random regression models were favored in the formal model tests to evaluate suitability, correlation coefficients between test-days within lactation were high (0.7–0.8) and small differences in breeding values resulted among different models. That would indicate that a few test-days per cow would produce accurate breeding values for milkability.
Performance assessment of membrane distillation for skim milk and whey processing - Corrected Proof
Angela Hausmann, Peter Sanciolo, Todor Vasiljevic, Ulrich Kulozik, Mikel Duke
Membrane distillation is an emerging membrane process based on evaporation of a volatile solvent. One of its often stated advantages is the low flux sensitivity toward concentration of the processed fluid, in contrast to reverse osmosis. In the present paper, we looked at 2 high-solids applications of the dairy industry: skim milk and whey. Performance was assessed under various hydrodynamic conditions to investigate the feasibility of fouling mitigation by changing the operating parameters and to compare performance to widespread membrane filtration processes. Whereas filtration processes are hydraulic pressure driven, membrane distillation uses vapor pressure from heat to drive separation and, therefore, operating parameters have a different bearing on the process. Experimental and calculated results identified factors influencing heat and mass transfer under various operating conditions using polytetrafluoroethylene flat-sheet membranes. Linear velocity was found to influence performance during skim milk processing but not during whey processing. Lower feed and higher permeate temperature was found to reduce fouling in the processing of both dairy solutions. Concentration of skim milk and whey by membrane distillation has potential, as it showed high rejection (>99%) of all dairy components and can operate using low electrical energy and pressures (<10 kPa). At higher cross-flow velocities (around 0.141 m/s), fluxes were comparable to those found with reverse osmosis, achieving a sustainable flux of approximately 12 kg/h·m2 for skim milk of 20% dry matter concentration and approximately 20 kg/h·m2 after 18 h of operation with whey at 20% dry matter concentration.
Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration - Corrected Proof
Safa Karaman, Ömer Said Toker, Ferhat Yüksel, Mustafa Çam, Ahmed Kayacier, Mahmut Dogan
In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree.
Prevalence and risk factors for udder cleft dermatitis in dairy cattle - Corrected Proof
K. Persson Waller, M. Bengtsson, A.-K. Nyman
Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin lesion in dairy cattle mostly located at the anterior junction between the udder and the abdominal wall or between the front quarters. Relatively little is known about causative factors for UCD, and few studies have investigated prevalence and risk factors of UCD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UCD in a random sample of dairy herds with freestalls and milking parlors in a county of Sweden. Thirty dairy herds participated in the study. Each herd was visited once at milking, when every third cow was investigated for presence of UCD. Associations between UCD and milk production, breed, parity, days in milk, claw health, and udder health on the herd and cow levels were also investigated. In addition, a case-control study was performed in 6 herds with a high prevalence of UCD to investigate associations between udder conformation or mange and UCD. Udder cleft dermatitis was found in 18.4% of the 1,084 cows included in the study. The within-herd cow prevalence varied between zero and 39%, with an average of 18.5%. Risk factors for UCD at the herd level were a high proportion of Swedish Red cows and a high production level. At the cow level, breed, parity, and production level were identified as risk factors. The highest risk of having UCD was found in high-producing Swedish Red cows that had calved at least 3 times. Veterinary-treated clinical mastitis was associated with UCD, but cow composite somatic cell count was not. A strong anterior udder attachment was a protective factor, but signs of mange had no association with UCD. The primary cause of UCD is still unclear, and more research is needed to identify the best ways to prevent the development of this animal welfare problem.
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids recovery in ripened cheese obtained from milk of cows fed different levels of extruded flaxseed - Corrected Proof
M. Cattani, R. Mantovani, S. Schiavon, G. Bittante, L. Bailoni
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the addition of extruded flaxseed (EF) in dairy cow diets had an effect on milk fat and individual fatty acids (FA) recovery in cheese after 90 d of ripening. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows, divided into 3 experimental groups (6 cows/group), were fed 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with 0 (CTR), 500 (EF500), or 1,000 g/d (EF1000) of EF in 3 subsequent periods (2 wk/each), following a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. Individual milk samples were collected on d 7 and 13 of each period to determine proximate and FA composition. Eighteen cheese-making sessions (2 for each group and period) were carried out, using a representative pooled milk sample obtained from the 6 cows of each group (10 L). At 90 d of ripening, cheeses were analyzed for proximate and FA composition. Cheese yield was computed as the ratio between the weights of ripened cheese and processed milk. Recoveries of fat, individual FA, and grouped FA were computed as the ratio between the corresponding weights in cheese and in milk. Inclusion of EF did not affect DMI, milk yield, or milk composition. Compared with CTR, the 2 diets containing EF increased the proportion of C18:3n-3 and total n-3 FA, in both milk and cheese. Cheese yield and cheese fat percentage did not differ among diets. Likewise, milk fat recovery in cheese was comparable in the 3 treatments and averaged 0.85. The recoveries of individual FA were, for the most part, not dissimilar from fat recovery, except for short-chain saturated FA (from 0.38 for C4:0 to 0.80 for C13:0), some long-chain saturated FA (0.56 and 0.62 for C20:0 and C21:0, respectively), and for C18:3n-6 (1.65). The recovery of saturated FA was lower than that of monounsaturated FA, whereas recovery of polyunsaturated FA was intermediate. Compared with medium- and long-chain FA, short-chain FA were recovered to a smaller extent in cheese. No differences in recovery were found between n-6 and n-3 FA. In conclusion, FA have different recoveries during cheese-making, with lower values for the short-chain compared with long-chain FA, and for saturated FA compared with unsaturated FA. The addition of EF in dairy cow diets did not influence cheese yield or fat recovery in cheese, irrespective of the inclusion level. The experiment confirmed that feeding cows with EF represents a successful strategy for improving the FA profile of dairy products, through an increase of n-3 FA.
Osteopontin is highly susceptible to cleavage in bovine milk and the proteolytic fragments bind the αVβ3-integrin receptor - Corrected Proof
B. Christensen, E.S. Sørensen
Site-specific and partial proteolysis of milk proteins can both alter and increase their biological activity. The milk protein osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated integrin-binding molecule present in most tissues and body fluids. Osteopontin is a biological substrate for matrix metalloproteinases, thrombin, plasmin, and cathepsin D. These proteases cleave OPN at several positions near the integrin-binding sequence Arg-Gly-Asp138. This cleavage can either increase or reduce the ability of OPN to bind integrins and illustrates that small differences in the cleavage pattern can have a substantial effect on the functionality of OPN. Bovine milk OPN (bOPN) exists in both intact full-length and cleaved forms, and in this study, 6 N-terminal bOPN fragments originating from proteolytic cleavage were purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. These fragments were generated by cleavage at the Lys145-Ser146, Arg147-Ser148, Lys149-Lys150, Phe151-Arg152, Arg152-Arg153, and Arg153-Ser154 peptide bonds. The principal protease in milk, plasmin, appeared to cleave 3 of these sites. However, the major cleavage site was observed to be at the Phe151-Arg152 bond, which does not match the specificity of plasmin. The bOPN fragments were shown to interact with the integrin receptor αVβ3 as efficiently as the well-characterized and highly active OPN fragment Ile1-Arg152, generated by thrombin cleavage of human milk OPN. These data show that OPN in milk is highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in the region containing the integrin-binding motifs, and the generated fragments are highly capable of binding cells via the αVβ3-integrin.
Decline in mammary translational capacity during intravenous glucose infusion into lactating dairy cows - Corrected Proof
R.V. Curtis, J.J.M. Kim, D.L. Bajramaj, J. Doelman, V.R. Osborne, J.P. Cant
The objective of this study was to determine effects of glucose on milk protein yield and mammary mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in dairy cattle in early lactation. Eight multiparous cows at 73 ± 8 d in milk were randomly assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design for two 6-d periods. Treatments were jugular infusion of either saline (Sal) or 896 g/d glucose (Glc). All cows were fed a total mixed ration with 42% neutral detergent fiber, had free access to water, and were milked twice a day. Within each period, blood samples were taken (d 5) and mammary tissue was collected by biopsy (d 6) from each hindquarter for Western blot analysis. In addition to Sal and Glc treatments, on d 6, rapamycin dissolved in 50% dimethyl sulfoxide was administered via the teat canals into the left quarters, with a control solution administered into the right quarters. Rapamycin had no effect on milk protein yields or phosphorylation state of mTOR signaling proteins. Infusions of Glc significantly increased milk yield but only tended to increase milk protein yields. Milk fat tended to be decreased in cows infused with Glc, whereas lactose yields were significantly increased. Glucose infusion did not increase plasma glucose levels, but insulin and nonessential AA concentrations increased by 21 and 16%, respectively, branched-chain AA concentrations decreased 24%, and essential AA concentrations tended to decrease by 14%. Infusion of Glc significantly decreased abundances of both phosphorylated and total ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in mammary tissue by 27 and 11%, respectively. Abundance of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) decreased significantly by 25%, whereas total 4EBP1 exhibited a tendency to decrease by 16%. We conclude that the mTOR signaling pathway is not the only regulator of milk protein synthesis. Decreases in essential AA concentrations in plasma suggest that protein synthesis was stimulated in nonmammary tissues of the body, presumably skeletal muscle.
Evaluation of effects of metritis management in a complex dairy herd health management program - Corrected Proof
M.A. Krogh, C. Enevoldsen
Evaluating the effects of all interventions in a dairy herd, including the effects of various herd health management programs (HHMP), is highly relevant. A traditional randomized controlled trial is the gold standard but is likely practically impossible or prohibitively expensive to use for a general evaluation of a HHMP. Generalizability may also be poor because of the dynamics of the production contexts. In this study, we demonstrate an approach for evaluating the effects of an HHMP in the field, specifying an intervention theory for an ongoing HHMP in the context of the Danish dairy industry. As an example, we suggest one coherent analytical approach for studying the possible effects on milk production of systematic postpartum examinations of vaginal discharge, which is supposed to improve detection and treatment of metritis or endometritis. This routine is one component of the HHMP. The data consisted of 121 herds and 76,953 lactations over a 15-yr period. For parity group 1, the negative effects of metritis (despite treatment) on 305-d milk production after a normal calving were reduced by 116 kg of energy-corrected milk after enrollment in the HHMP. For parity group 2 and parity group >2, enrollment in the HHMP resulted in a 129-kg and an 80-kg energy-corrected milk yield increase in milk production, respectively. The results suggest that effects of the HHMP existed, which were mediated through improved metritis detection. This study demonstrates the importance of a clear-cut intervention theory, although even with a theory, the research question can be too herd and context specific. In such a case, a within-herd randomized controlled trial study design seems to be the only way to achieve a valid result for a given herd, and acquiring valid results from an observational multi-herd study will be very difficult.
Short communication: Aflatoxin M1 in dairy products sold in Şanlıurfa - Corrected Proof
F. Temamogullari, A. Kanici
The aim of this study was to detect the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n = 38), UHT milk (n = 12), white pickled cheese (n = 50), and yogurt (n = 50) collected from the Şanlıurfa city markets and locally produced dairy products by ELISA. The mean contamination rates were 56.74 ± 40.32, 43.1 ± 23.19, 103.2 ± 29.13, and 55.28 ± 12.68 ng/kg, respectively, for raw milk, UHT milk, white pickled cheese, and yogurt. According to the data, 21 (55.26%) raw milk, 3 (25%) UHT milk, 10 (20%) white pickled cheese, and 10 (20%) yogurt samples were contaminated with AFM1 over the acceptable levels (≥50 ng/kg), ranging from 0.82 to 130.89 ng/kg. None of the white pickled cheese samples contained AFM1 levels above the Turkish legal limit (250 ng/kg). Consequently, the AFM1 contamination levels determined in this study in white pickled cheese were not considered to pose a serious public health hazard. But, the AFM1 levels in raw and UHT milk and yogurt samples point out an increased human health risk in Turkey related to high aflatoxin levels. Therefore, milk and dairy products have to be controlled continuously to detect AFM1 contamination by the Turkish public health authorities.
The effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 sources of protein in starter on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein neonatal calves - Corrected Proof
A.M. Tahmasbi, S. Heidari Jahan Abadi, A.A. Naserian
The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 protein sources in starter on the performance and blood metabolite responses of Holstein neonatal calves from birth to 6 wk of age. Calves (20 males and 20 females) based on sex were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, including soybean meal (SBM) and meat and bone meal (MB) with either fermented colostrum (or fresh milk. Although sex and liquid feed had no significant effect on feed intake, calves consumed more feed intake on the diet containing SBM (15 ± 0.2 kg) than MB (13 ± 0.2 kg) during the experimental period; also, weight gain was affected by both liquid feed and starter. Liquid feed and starter had significant effects on calf body size, including pin width, hip width, withers height, hip height, and stomach size, but no significant effects were observed on calf body size between the sexes. Plasma glucose concentration was not affected by sex, liquid feed, or starter. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration decreased in the first 3 wk and then started to increase during the last 3 wk, but it was only affected by starter and calves receiving SBM (10.18 mg/dL) had a higher concentration of plasma urea nitrogen than calves receiving MB (9.6 mg/dL) at the end of the experiment. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations decreased in all treatment groups from d 0 to the end of the study. No significant effects were observed on plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations between the 2 sexes, but they were significantly affected by both liquid feed and starter. Results of the present study provide useful information to apply to Holstein neonatal calves during the first 6 wk of life when liquid feed and 2 sources of protein in starter are considered.
Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit - Corrected Proof
J.R. Thomasen, C. Egger-Danner, A. Willam, B. Guldbrandtsen, M.S. Lund, A.C. Sørensen
The objective of this study was to evaluate a genomic breeding scheme in a small dairy cattle population that was intermediate in terms of using both young bulls (YB) and progeny-tested bulls (PB). This scheme was compared with a conventional progeny testing program without use of genomic information and, as the extreme case, a juvenile scheme with genomic information, where all bulls were used before progeny information was available. The population structure, cost, and breeding plan parameters were chosen to reflect the Danish Jersey cattle population, being representative for a small dairy cattle population. The population consisted of 68,000 registered cows. Annually, 1,500 bull dams were screened to produce the 500 genotyped bull calves from which 60 YB were selected to be progeny tested. Two unfavorably correlated traits were included in the breeding goal, a production trait (h2 = 0.30) and a functional trait (h2 = 0.04). An increase in reliability of 5 percentage points for each trait was used in the default genomic scenario. A deterministic approach was used to model the different breeding programs, where the primary evaluation criterion was annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG). Discounted profit was used as an indicator of the economic outcome. We investigated the effect of varying the following parameters: (1) increase in reliability due to genomic information, (2) number of genotyped bull calves, (3) proportion of bull dam sires that are young bulls, and (4) proportion of cow sires that are young bulls. The genomic breeding scheme was both genetically and economically superior to the conventional breeding scheme, even in a small dairy cattle population where genomic information causes a relatively low increase in reliability of breeding values. Assuming low reliabilities of genomic predictions, the optimal breeding scheme according to AMGG was characterized by mixed use of YB and PB as bull sires. Exclusive use of YB for production cows increased AMGG up to 3 percentage points. The results from this study supported our hypothesis that strong interaction effects exist. The strongest interaction effects were obtained between increased reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values and more intensive use of YB. The juvenile scheme was genetically inferior when the increase in reliability was low (5 percentage points), but became genetically superior at higher reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values. The juvenile scheme was always superior according to discounted profit because of the shorter generation interval and minimizing costs for housing and feeding waiting bulls.
Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France - Corrected Proof
D. Raboisson, E. Maigne, P. Sans, G. Allaire, E. Cahuzac
Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate = 0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It also shows that heifer mortality decreases when the proportion of heifers born decreased. These determinants of dairy calf and heifer mortality are of great importance for farmer advisors, the dairy industry, and the political decision makers.
Combined effect of active coating and modified atmosphere packaging on prolonging the shelf life of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese - Corrected Proof
Marianna Mastromatteo, Amalia Conte, Michele Faccia, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini
In this work, the effect of active coating on the shelf life of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese packaged in air and modified atmosphere (MAP) was studied. The active coating was based on sodium alginate (2%, wt/vol) and potassium sorbate (1%, wt/vol). The MAP was made up of 75% CO2 and 25% N2 (MAP1), 25% CO2 and 75% N2 (MAP2), or 50% CO2 and 50% N2 (MAP3). The product quality decay was assessed by monitoring microbiological and sensory changes during storage at 4, 8, and 14°C. Results showed that the combination of active coating and MAP was able to improve the preservation of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese. Specifically, the shelf life increased up to 160 d for samples stored at 4°C, and 40 and 11 d for those at 8 and 14°C, respectively. A faster quality decay for untreated samples packaged in air was observed. In particular, the Pseudomonas spp. growth and the appearance of molds were responsible for product unacceptability. The combination of active coating and MAP represents a strategic solution to prolong the shelf life of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese and to ensure the safety of the product under thermal abuse conditions.
Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method - Corrected Proof
Francesca Losito, Alyexandra Arienzo, Giorgia Bottini, Francesca Romana Priolisi, Alberto Mari, Giovanni Antonini
Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy factories can monitor autonomously the microbiological safety and quality of their products, saving both time and money.
Molecular epidemiology of recurrent clinical mastitis due to Streptococcus uberis: Evidence of both an environmental source and recurring infection with the same strain - Corrected Proof
Salem Abureema, Peter Smooker, Jakob Malmo, Margaret Deighton
This study was undertaken because clinicians and farmers have observed that a considerable number of cows diagnosed with Streptococcus uberis mastitis have recurrences of mastitis in the same or a different quarter. The study was an attempt to answer whether these recurring cases were due to treatment failure (in which case a search would have begun for a better treatment for Strep. uberis mastitis) or due to reinfection with a different strain of Strep. uberis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we determined that the majority of recurrences (20 of 27) were caused by a new strain of Strep. uberis, indicating that treatment of the initial infection had been successful. A small number of recurrences (5 of 27) were caused by the initial strain, indicating persistence. The remaining 2 recurrences occurred in a new quarter but with the initial strain of Strep. uberis, indicating either spread between quarters or reactivation of a previous subclinical infection. Analysis of the PFGE profiles failed to reveal any strain-specific propensity to persist, because strains causing recurrences occurred in most of the major clusters.
Effect of camel chymosin on the texture, functionality, and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese - Corrected Proof
A.C. Moynihan, S. Govindasamy-Lucey, J.J. Jaeggi, M.E. Johnson, J.A. Lucey, P.L.H. McSweeney
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coagulant (bovine calf chymosin, BCC, or camel chymosin, CC), on the functional and sensory properties and performance shelf-life of low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella. Both chymosins were used at 2 levels [0.05 and 0.037 international milk clotting units (IMCU)/mL], and clotting temperature was varied to achieve similar gelation times for each treatment (as this also affects cheese properties). Functionality was assessed at various cheese ages using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology and performance of baked cheese on pizza. Cheese composition was not significantly different between treatments. The level of total calcium or insoluble (INSOL) calcium did not differ significantly among the cheeses initially or during ripening. Proteolysis in cheese made with BCC was higher than in cheeses made with CC. At 84 d of ripening, maximum loss tangent values were not significantly different in the cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar melt characteristics. After 14 d of cheese ripening, the crossover temperature (loss tangent = 1 or melting temperature) was higher when CC was used as coagulant. This was due to lower proteolysis in the CC cheeses compared with those made with BCC because the pH and INSOL calcium levels were similar in all cheeses. Cheeses made with CC maintained higher hardness values over 84 d of ripening compared with BCC and maintained higher sensory firmness values and adhesiveness of mass scores during ripening. When melted on pizzas, cheese made with CC had lower blister quantity and the cheeses were firmer and chewier. Because the 2 types of cheeses had similar moisture contents, pH values, and INSOL Ca levels, differences in proteolysis were responsible for the firmer and chewier texture of CC cheeses. When cheese performance on baked pizza was analyzed, properties such as blister quantity, strand thickness, hardness, and chewiness were maintained for a longer ripening time than cheeses made with BCC, indicating that use of CC could help to extend the performance shelf-life of LMPS Mozzarella.
Effect of supplementing fat to pregnant nonlactating cows on colostral fatty acid profile and passive immunity of the newborn calf - Corrected Proof
M. Garcia, L.F. Greco, M.G. Favoreto, R.S. Marsola, L.T. Martins, R.S. Bisinotto, J.H. Shin, A.L. Lock, E. Block, W.W. Thatcher, J.E.P. Santos, C.R. Staples
The objectives were to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (FA) to nulliparous and parous Holstein animals (n = 78) during late gestation on FA profile of colostrum and plasma of newborn calves and on production and absorption of IgG. The saturated FA supplement (SAT) was enriched in C18:0 and the unsaturated FA supplement (ESS) was enriched in the essential FA C18:2n-6. Fatty acids were supplemented at 1.7% of dietary dry matter to low-FA diets (1.9% of dietary dry matter) during the last 8 wk of gestation. Calves were fed 4 L of colostrum within 2 h of birth from their own dam or from a dam fed the same treatment. Feeding fat did not affect prepartum dry matter intake, body weight change, or gestation length. Parous but not nulliparous dams tended to give birth to heavier calves if fed fat prepartum. Parous dams were less able to synthesize essential FA derivatives, as evidenced by lower desaturase indices, compared with nulliparous dams, suggesting a greater need for essential FA supplementation. The FA profile of colostrum was modified to a greater degree by prepartum fat feeding than was that of neonatal calf plasma. The placental transfer and synthesis of elongated n-3 FA (C20:5, C22:5, and C22:6) were reduced, whereas the n-6 FA (C18:2, C18:3, and C20:3) were increased in plasma of calves born from dams fed ESS rather than SAT. Supplementing unsaturated FA prepartum resulted in elevated concentrations of trans isomers of unsaturated monoene and diene FA, as well as C18:2n-6 in colostrum. Serum concentrations of IgG tended to be increased in calves born from dams fed fat compared with those not fed fat, and prepartum feeding of SAT tended to improve circulating concentrations of IgG in newborn calves above the feeding of ESS. Apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was improved in calves born from dams fed fat, and SAT supplementation appeared more effective than supplementation with ESS. Feeding SAT prepartum may be of greater benefit based upon greater circulating IgG concentrations of calves after colostrum feeding. Feeding moderate amounts of saturated or unsaturated long-chain FA during the last 8 wk of gestation changed the FA profile of colostrum and plasma of neonates to reflect that of the supplements.
Evaluation of milk ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy herds and association with within-herd prevalence - Corrected Proof
C.J. Lavers, H.W. Barkema, I.R. Dohoo, S.L.B. McKenna, G.P. Keefe
Cow-level milk ELISA results can be used to determine herd Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status. Milk sample collection is minimally invasive and ELISA results can be obtained quickly and economically. The objectives were to evaluate the herd-level test characteristics of 3 commercial milk ELISA, and to determine the impact of within-herd MAP prevalence on the performance of the milk ELISA herd test. A total of 32 purposively selected herds with a median herd size of 66 milking cows were used in this 2-yr project. Fecal and milk samples were collected from all milking cows at 6-mo intervals. Fecal samples were pooled by cow age, with 5 cow samples per pool; individual fecal culture was completed on cow samples from positive pools. Herd MAP status was defined as MAP positive if, at any point during the longitudinal study, a pooled fecal culture from the herd was positive. Milk samples were analyzed using each of 3 commercial milk ELISA kits; a cow-level result from each ELISA was classified as positive following the respective manufacturer's recommended threshold for a positive result. Herd-level milk ELISA test characteristics were estimated using generalized estimating equations logistic models, which accounted for repeated measurements. Using a cutoff of 2% milk ELISA-positive cows, milk ELISA herd sensitivity relative to a herd MAP status based on all pooled fecal culture results collected during the study was as follows: ELISA A: 59% [95% confidence interval (CI): 36–78%), ELISA B: 56% (95% CI: 32–77%), and ELISA C: 63% (95% CI: 41–81%). Herd specificity for ELISA A, B, and C was 80% (95% CI: 71–88%), 96% (95% CI: 89–98%), and 92% (95% CI: 86–96%), respectively. The remainder of the analyses focused on results from ELISA B. Herd sensitivity of ELISA B increased as MAP prevalence increased. In herds with a mean MAP prevalence ≤5%, the herd sensitivity of the milk ELISA was low, ranging from 11% when MAP prevalence was 1%, to 62% when MAP prevalence was 5%. Categorical likelihood ratios based on milk ELISA within-herd prevalence predicted that herds with milk ELISA prevalence above 0 but <2% had a similar likelihood to be MAP positive or MAP negative, whereas herds with a milk ELISA prevalence between 2 and 4% were 3.7 times more likely to be MAP positive than MAP negative. All herds with a milk ELISA prevalence >4% were MAP positive. Although milk ELISA B worked well to establish herd MAP status in high-prevalence herds, interpretation was unreliable in MAP-negative and low-prevalence herds.
Short communication: Antimicrobial resistance and virulence characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci Portuguese isolates from bovine mastitis - Corrected Proof
R. Seixas, J.P. Santos, R. Bexiga, C.L. Vilela, M. Oliveira
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) have already been reported as mastitis agents. Such bacterial species are a public health concern, and the characterization of their antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile is important to better control their dissemination. The present work evaluated the distribution of methicillin-resistance among 204 staphylococci from clinical (n = 50) and subclinical (n = 154) bovine mastitis. The presence of the mecA gene was determined by PCR. Phenotypic expression of coagulase, DNase, lipase, gelatinase, hemolytic enzymes, and biofilm production was evaluated. The presence of biofilm-related genes, icaA, icaD, and bap, was also determined. Antimicrobial resistance patterns for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, and fusidic acid were determined. Nineteen (9.3%) isolates were identified as MRS, and the presence of mecA in these isolates was confirmed by PCR. Virulence factors evaluation revealed that gelatinase was the most frequently detected (94.7%), followed by hemolysins (73.7%) and lipase (68.4%); 84.2% of the MRS isolates produced biofilm and icaA and icaD were detected in almost half of the MRS isolates (52.6%), but all were bap-negative. Resistance against other antimicrobial agents ranged from 0 (fusidic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin) to 100% (nalidixic acid). Resistance to nalidixic acid and nalidixic acid-tetracycline were the most common antimicrobial resistance profiles (31.6%). This study suggests that despite the low prevalence of MRS, the isolates frequently express other virulence traits, especially biofilm, that may represent a serious challenge to clinicians.
Use of sodium polyphosphates with different linear lengths in the production of spreadable processed cheese - Corrected Proof
G. Nagyová, F. Buňka, R.N. Salek, M. Černíková, P. Mančík, T. Grůber, D. Kuchař
The objective of this study was to describe the dependence of textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, and relative adhesiveness) of processed cheese spreads on the proportion of disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP), and sodium salts of polyphosphate in ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts. Sodium salts of polyphosphate with different mean lengths (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, and 28) were used. Pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP) was used instead of TSPP in the second part of the study. Products with and without pH adjustment were tested (the target pH value was 5.60–5.80). Textural properties of the processed cheese were observed after 2, 9, and 30 d of storage at 6°C. Hardness of the processed cheese with a low content of polyphosphate increased at a specific DSP:TSPP ratio (∼1:1 to 3:4). This trend was the same for all the polyphosphates used; only the absolute values of texture parameters were different. The same trends were observed in the ternary mixtures with PSTP, showing lower final values of hardness compared with samples containing TSPP. Hardness and cohesiveness decreased and relative adhesiveness increased in the samples with increased pH values and vice versa; the main trend remained unchanged.
Short communication: Genetic characterization of digital cushion thickness - Corrected Proof
G. Oikonomou, G. Banos, V. Machado, L. Caixeta, R.C. Bicalho
Dairy cow lameness is a serious animal welfare issue. It is also a significant cause of economic losses, reducing reproductive efficiency and milk production and increasing culling rates. The digital cushion is a complex structure composed mostly of adipose tissue located underneath the distal phalanx and has recently been phenotypically associated with incidence of claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL); namely, sole ulcers and white line disease. The objective of this study was to characterize digital cushion thickness genetically and to investigate its association with body condition score (BCS), locomotion score (LOCO), CHDL, and milk production. Data were collected from 1 large closely monitored commercial dairy farm located in upstate New York; 923 dairy cows were used. Before trimming, the following data were collected by a member of the research team: BCS, cow height measurement, and LOCO. Presence or not of CHDL (sole ulcer or white line disease, or both) was recorded at trimming. Immediately after the cows were hoof trimmed, they underwent digital sonographic B-mode examination for the measurement of digital cushion thickness. Factors such as parity number, stage of lactation, calving date, mature-equivalent 305-d milk yield (ME305MY), and pedigree information were obtained from the farm's dairy management software (DairyCOMP 305; Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA). Univariate animal models were used to obtain variance component estimations for each studied trait (CHDL, BCS, digital cushion thickness average, LOCO, height, and ME305MY) and a 6-variate analysis was conducted to estimate the genetic, residual, and phenotypic correlations between the studied traits. The heritability estimate of DCTA was 0.33 ± 0.09, whereas a statistically significant genetic correlation was estimated between DCTA and CHDL (−0.60 ± 0.29). Of the other genetic correlations, significant estimates were derived for BCS with LOCO (−0.49 ± 0.19) and ME305MY (−0.48 ± 0.20). Digital cushion thickness is moderately heritable and genetically strongly correlated with CHDL.
Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life - Corrected Proof
Dana E. Wong, Julie M. Goddard
Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.
Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems - Corrected Proof
C. Lambertz, C. Sanker, M. Gauly
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows raised in 4 different housing systems: (1) warm loose housing with access to grazing (WG), (2) warm loose housing without access to grazing (WI), (3) cold loose housing with access to grazing (CG), and (4) cold loose housing without access to grazing (CI). For each of the 4 housing systems, 5 farms with a herd size of 70 to 200 lactating cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly in each barn to calculate THI. Milk production data included 21,546 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yield, and SCS. These data were associated with the average THI of the 3 d preceding the respective measurement, which was divided into 6 classes (<45, ≥45 to <50, ≥50 to <55, ≥55 to <60, ≥60 to <65, and ≥65). Furthermore, bulk milk samples including the fat and protein percentage, and SCS taken 4 to 6 times per month were associated with the average and maximum THI of the 3 d before sampling. Data were recorded from April 2010 to March 2011. In each of the housing systems, monthly THI values above 60, indicating heat stress, were recorded between June and September, with higher values in WI and WG. In all systems, fat-corrected milk, fat, and protein yields of the test-day records decreased in tendency from 60 ≤ THI < 65 to THI >65. In WI and CI, values for SCS were greater in the class THI >65 than in 60 ≤ THI < 65, whereas no difference between any of the THI classes was found in WG and CG. The fat and protein percentage of the bulk milk samples decreased with increasing 3-d maximum THI in all 4 systems, whereas the SCS increased with increasing 3-d average THI. In conclusion, negative effects of heat stress conditions under a temperate climate on milk production traits and SCS were found, although a housing system being superior to the other systems in altering heat stress effects was not identified.
Induced hyperketonemia affects the mammary immune response during lipopolysaccharide challenge in dairy cows - Corrected Proof
M. Zarrin, O. Wellnitz, H.A. van Dorland, R.M. Bruckmaier
Metabolic adaptations during negative energy and nutrient balance in dairy cows are thought to cause impaired immune function and hence increased risk of infectious diseases, including mastitis. Characteristic adaptations mostly occurring in early lactation are an elevation of plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids (nonesterified fatty acids, NEFA) and diminished glucose concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of elevated plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at simultaneously even or positive energy balance and thus normal plasma NEFA and glucose on factors related to the immune system in liver and mammary gland of dairy cows. In addition, we investigated the effect of elevated plasma BHBA and intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the mammary immune response. Thirteen dairy cows were infused either with BHBA (HyperB, n = 5) to induce hyperketonemia (1.7 mmol/L) or with a 0.9% saline solution (NaCl, n = 8) for 56 h. Two udder quarters were injected with 200 μg of LPS after 48 h of infusion. Rectal temperature (RT) and somatic cell counts (SCC) were measured before, at 48 h after the start of infusions, and hourly during the LPS challenge. The mRNA abundance of factors related to the immune system was measured in hepatic and mammary tissue biopsies 1 wk before and 48 h after the start of the infusion, and additionally in mammary tissue at 56 h of infusion (8 h after LPS administration). At 48 h of infusion in HyperB, the mRNA abundance of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the mammary gland was increased and that of haptoglobin (Hp) tended to be increased. Rectal temperature, SCC, and mRNA abundance of candidate genes in the liver were not affected by the BHBA infusion until 48 h. During the following LPS challenge, RT and SCC increased in both groups. However, SCC increased less in HyperB than in NaCl. Quarters infused with LPS showed a more pronounced increase of mRNA abundance of IL-8 and IL-10 in HyperB than in NaCl. The results demonstrate that an increase of plasma BHBA upregulates acute phase proteins in the mammary gland. In response to intramammary LPS challenge, elevated BHBA diminishes the influx of leukocytes from blood into milk, perhaps by via modified cytokine synthesis. Results indicate that increased ketone body plasma concentrations may play a crucial role in the higher mastitis susceptibility in early lactation.
Goat milk consumption modulates liver divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression and serum hepcidin during Fe repletion in Fe-deficiency anemia - Corrected Proof
J. Díaz-Castro, M. Pulido, M.J.M. Alférez, J.J. Ochoa, E. Rivas, S. Hijano, I. López-Aliaga
Iron deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency worldwide. In spite of the crucial role of hepatocyte divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and hepcidin in Fe metabolism, to date, no studies have directly tested the role of these proteins in liver Fe metabolism during Fe repletion after induced Fe-deficiency anemia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets on Fe metabolism in one of the main body storage organs, the liver, during the course of Fe repletion with goat or cow milk-based diets in anemic rats. Animals were placed on a preexperimental period of 40 d, a control group receiving a normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving a low-Fe diet (5 mg of Fe/kg of diet). Rats were fed for 30 d with goat or cow milk-based diets with normal Fe content (45 mg of Fe/kg of diet). The hematological parameters, serum hepcidin, hepatosomatic index, liver Fe content, and liver DMT1 expression were determined. During the recovery of the anemia with milk-based diets, the restoration of liver Fe content and hematological parameters, especially with goat milk, increased the red blood cell count, favoring the oxygen supply and weight gain. Moreover, goat milk consumption potentiates liver DMT1 expression, enhancing Fe metabolism and storage. In addition, the increase in serum hepcidin in anemic rats observed in the current study also explains and supports the higher liver Fe content after supplying goat milk, because it blocks the liberation of Fe from hepatocytes, increasing its storage in liver.
Copyright 2013 by The American Dairy Science Association